normal fault. The descent was a rough one, as the bedrock walls of the deep fault rubbed against each other. On September 29 it again became a major geyser, and this activity persisted until 1968. As we approach the 60th anniversary of the M7.3 Hebgen Lake earthquake, which occurred on August 17th, 1959 at 11:37 PM (MST), it seems appropriate to discuss the effects of the earthquake on the region, and what we might expect if a similar sized event happens in the near future. Coordinates: 44.8449271°N, -111.2024488°W Approx. The strike and dip of the instrumental fault plane agree well with observed ruptures at the surface. A few years later, it had changed into a very vigorous geyser that erupted to heights up to 50 feet and excavated a vent with a maximum diameter of ~40 feet and more than 20 feet deep. (Aerial view). Rockslide damage to the Golden Gate area near Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, as a result of the 1959 Hebgen Lake earthquake. Scarps changed noticeably in 19yr although they still appeared remarkably fresh in 1978. Hebgen Lake Dam, aerial view. The fault-plane solution for the Hebgen Lake earthquake, together with a consideration of the first motion at Bozeman, Montana, indicates a focal mechanism of the dipole, or fault, type. Sapphire Pool, in the Upper Geyser Basin, erupting after the 1959 Hebgen Lake earthquake. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), Mapping, Remote Sensing, and Geospatial Data, at least 289 springs in the geyser basins of the Firehole River had erupted as geysers, a few of these evolved into hot springs or geysers, In 1971, major eruptions ceased at Seismic geyser as activity shifted to a new, small, satellite crater that formed nearby, showed an average interval of 67.4 minutes. The Gallatin Range (Figure 2) forms a north-trending fault block in northwestern Yellowstone Park that is bounded on the east and west by north-trending normal fault zones. In 1971, major eruptions ceased at Seismic geyser as activity shifted to a new, small, satellite crater that formed nearby. This week's contribution is from Jamie Farrell, assistant research professor with the University of Utah Seismograph Stations and Chief Seismologist of the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory. The fracture slowly evolved into a fumarole, and in about 2.5 years it evolved into a small geyser. (Public domain.). 656 Last Review Date: 2010-11-17 Hebgen Lake fault scarp in 1959. Sapphire pool today is still a crystal-clear, blue-water pool, and it still violently boils and surges on occasion. Earthquake. Wallace (1980 #657) details significant degradation of scarp at two locations. The low area between the outermost caldera rim fault and the next fault is a graben. (It was later discovered that a landslide blocked this from happening.) Within nearby Yellowstone National Park, many rock slides blocked the roadways, and there was damage to the world famous Old Faithful Inn, where a large rock chimney collapsed. The more we are prepared for earthquakes, the better we will be after one happens. First, let's talk about the earthquake itself. Album caption and index card: Madison Canyon slide with Earthquake Lake in the background. It was preceded by a magnitude-6.3 foreshock, and followed by more than 350 aftershocks over the next four days. Historical fault scarps are 0.3- to 6-m high (generally 3-m high;Witkind, 1964 #247) and locally superimposed on 3- to 30-m-high prehistoric scarps, monoclinal folds, and linear bedrock outcrops (Witkind, 1964 #247; Myers and Hamilton, 1964 #250; Witkind and others, 1964 #629). Fault Line from Earthquake that occurred in 1959 Postcard! Public domain.). Red Canyon Fault from Mapcarta, the free map. Mirror Lake fills a depression due to uneven settling of the ground along one of the faults, called a sagpond by seismologists. For the most up-to-date information, please refer to the interactive fault map. is a high angle, dip-slip fault on which the hanging-wall has moved down relative to The Hebgen Lake earthquake, as it came to be known, was a magnitude-7.5 event. They have degraded much more rapidly than have those produced in 1915 and 1954 in Nevada, but a quasi-stable slope of more than 40o characterizes the Hebgen Lake scarps as compared to an upper limit of 37o on the Nevada scarps. Quaternary tectonic activity rates differ along the length of the fault system, with less displacement to the north. Prior to the Hebgen Lake earthquake, Sapphire Pool (located in Biscuit Basin) erupted about every 17 to 20 minutes to a height of 3 to 6 feet. A fault is a break in the earth’s crust along which movement can take place causing an earthquake. Unusual geologic features were formed--spectacular fault scarps, a large … Faults are classified according to the direction of the relative movement between fault blocks, which is related to the type of stress causing the fault. To commemorate the 60th anniversary of the Hebgen Lake earthquake, the Earthquake Lake Visitor Center operated by the U.S. Forest Service, will be hosting a number of events leading up to August 17th, including several public lectures. Seismic geyser in eruption in 1970. Quake Lake (officially Earthquake Lake) is a lake in southwestern Montana in the United States.It was created after an earthquake struck on August 17, 1959, killing 28 people. The lower terrace is offset 3.1 m (only 1959 offset), whereas the upper terrace is offset 5.3 m. The upper terrace has nearly two times the offset of the lower terrace. Reverse and Thrust. The earthquake caused up to about 18-20 feet of offset on the surface (fault scarps) that can still be seen today on both the Hebgen Lake and Red Canyon faults and, to a … The 1959 Hebgen Lake earthquake (also known as the 1959 Yellowstone earthquake) occurred on August 17 at 11:37 pm (MST) in southwestern Montana, United States.The earthquake measured 7.2 on the Moment magnitude scale, caused a huge landslide, resulted in over 28 fatalities and left US$11 million (equivalent to $96.48 million in 2019) in damage. Fault block terminology ... location of Hebgen Lake Earthquake. Hegben Hegben Lake Earthquake Lake Earthquake 1959 The earthquake caused 28 fatalities, with most of those as a result of a large landslide that was triggered in the Madison Canyon. Hebgen Lake - Montana 1961. Hebgen Lake Dam, an earthfill structure with a concrete core wall, built in 1913 by the Montana Power Company, was cracked in several places and inundated four times by a wall of water set in motion by the agitation of the lake basin. Strike-slip. Madison County, Montana. At 7:09 AM MDT on March 18, 2020, a 5.7 magnitude earthquake hit Salt Lake City, Utah, United States, with an epicenter 6 km (3.7 mi) north-northeast of Magna, Utah. As we approach the 60th anniversary of this event, we should remind ourselves that the area around Yellowstone (and much of the Western U.S.) is earthquake country. Old Faithful's eruption interval has continued to increase since that time and is now averaging ~93 minutes. By the day after the earthquake, at least 289 springs in the geyser basins of the Firehole River had erupted as geysers; of these, 160 were springs with no previous record of eruption. Several high-angle normal faults bounding the west front of the Madison Range north of Hebgen Lake, recurrently active during much of Neogene time, reactivated catastrophically on August 7, 1959. Several fault scarps were also created by the quake, including the Hebgen scarp, which runs roughly northwest–southeast along the north shore of Hebgen Lake. August 1959. A fault on which the two blocks slide past one another. 101 . Quake Lake is 190 feet (58 m) deep and 6 miles (9.7 km) long. Was this a direct result of the Hebgen Lake earthquake? The earthquake caused up to ~18-20 feet of offset on the surface (fault scarps) that can still be seen today on both the Hebgen Lake and Red Canyon faults and, to a lesser extent, the Madison fault. In addition, the sudden northward tilting of the basin caused Hebgen Lake to slosh back and forth. By September 1 it had increased to 62.1 minutes. Customize this card if you wish. The Hebgen Lake earthquake—as it is known—occurred on August 17, 1959 at 11:37 p.m. MST in Madison Canyon, just outside the western boundary of Yellowstone National Park. A viscoelastic finite element method is used to formulate an elastic rebound model for normal fault earthquake cycles. Its eruptions were quite regular, occurring about every 2 hours, and were massive and spectacular; some of the bursts were 150 feet high and 200 feet across! Pardee (1950 #46) noted morphology suggesting a fault-controlled range front along the northeast side of Hebgen Lake but no name was assigned. Public domain.). #1252 Alexander, J., Bridge, J.S., Leeder, M.R., Collier, R.E.L., and Gawthorpe, R.L., 1994, Holocene meander-belt evolution in an active extensional basin, southwestern Montana: Journal of Sedimentary Research, v. B64, p. 542-559. Montana earthquake area. It can be seen on the USGS 1:24K topographic map Mount Hebgen, MT. Meanwhile, roads and highways around Hebgen Lake collapsed into the water. The 1959 Madison Canyon landslide killed 28 people near Hebgen Lake. Along faults with vertical movement (dip-slip), either block may be thrust upward (reverse fault) or dropped down (normal fault). The average eruption interval the summer prior to the earthquake was 61.8 minutes—the shortest seasonal average on record. The waves were so large that they breached the Hebgen Lake dam a few times, leading panicked tourists to think the dam had failed. Some new fractures developed locally into fumaroles, and a few of these evolved into hot springs or geysers. (Public domain.). However, we rarely focus on the threat of large earthquakes in the region, even though the hazard and risk from these types of events is much larger than a volcanic eruption because they happen so much more frequently. The high intensity rating near the epicenter is justified not by the building damage, but rather by the extensive topographic changes which accompanied the earthquake: spectacular vertical fault scarps, severe warping of the ground surface around Hebgen Lake, and landsliding of various types. Even though the largest historic earthquake in Montana, 1959 Hebgen Lake earthquake (Mw7.3), caused surface rupture of this fault, early published data in reports dating from the early 1960s and paleoseismic studies conducted in 2000 are the only investigations addressing the fault. As of January 12, 2017, the USGS maintains a limited number of metadata fields that characterize the Quaternary faults and folds of the United States. An earlier publication refers to the fault as Hebgen Lake fault (U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1959 #630). What was the trigger for this landslide? New … The Hebgen Fault scarp is about 8 miles long, and extends from near the Hebgen Lake Lodge to the east valley wall of Beaver Creek. Earthquakes happen nearly every day in the region, and occasionally the area produces strong earthquakes that are capable of affecting large areas and causing damage. In Utah, movement along faults is mostly vertical; mountain blocks (for example, the Wasatch Range) move up relative to the downward movement of valley blocks (for example, the Salt Lake Valley). From September 14 to 29 it reverted to a steadily surging cauldron. Lake oscillations of this type are known as seiches. Witkind (1964 #247) indicates net cumulative throw is about 305 m. Paleoseismic investigations on the Hebgen Fault were conducted in 2000 and again in 2002 at Cabin Creek and Section 31. The Hebgen fault, as defined by 1959 surface rupture, extends from Beaver Creek southeastward to 2.3 km west of Canyon Creek. We often hear about the potential for large volcanic eruptions of the Yellowstone volcano in the news and on television shows. This is referred to a seiche wave. Two of the most spectacular changes were the formation of Seismic Geyser and the changes to Sapphire Pool. Red Canyon Fault, Montana Red Canyon Fault is a valley located in Gallatin County, MT at N44.84493° W111.20245° (NAD83) and at an elevation of 7145 ft MSL. In addition, new hot ground soon developed in some places and this became more apparent by the following spring with the formation of new fractures in sinter and linear zones of dead or dying trees. (Credit: John Brandow, USGS. At site 656-1 at Cabin Creek, two terrace risers at the northwest end of the 1959 surface rupture demonstrate recurrent movement on the fault. But maybe even more spectacular were the effects of the earthquake on the hydrothermal features in Yellowstone National Park. PLATE 8. Following the quake, and until September 5, it surged 6 to 8 feet high constantly. Fault classes . It is a fault scarp created when the Hebgen Lake Fault Block (a large section of the Earth’s crust) dropped. High-angle, down-to-the-southwest, range-front normal fault that bounds the northeastern side of main body of Hebgen Lake. Luckily, the dam did not fail and the waves eventually died off. (Credit: J. R. Stacy, USGS. Seismic geyser (located in the Upper Geyser Basin) started out as a newly formed fracture after the Hebgen Lake earthquake. US 287 follows the lake and offers glimpses of the effects of the earthquake and landslide, and a visitor center is just off the road. That landslide carried ~50 million cubic yards of rock, mud, and debris down the south side of the canyon and half way up the north side, partially burying the Rock Creek campground on the valley floor. Hebgen fault crosses dark forested spur near head of lake. Red Canyon Fault is a valley in Montana and has an elevation of 7146 feet. During the first few days after the earthquake, most springs began to clear, but several years passed before clearing was generally complete. The earthquake caused up to ~18-20 feet of offset on the surface (fault scarps) that can still be seen today on both the Hebgen Lake and Red Canyon faults and, to a lesser extent, the Madison fault. Faulting was accompanied by largest historic earthquake within the Intermountain Seismic Belt. For the first few days after the earthquake, Old Faithful was observed to be more erratic than usual, with successive longer and shorter intervals between eruptions, but that had been observed prior to the earthquake as well. The 1959 Hebgen Lake earthquake [4] (also known as the 1959 Yellowstone earthquake [4]) occurred on August 17 [4] at 11:37 pm (MST) [5] in southwestern Montana, United States.The earthquake measured 7.2 on the Moment magnitude scale, [1] caused a huge landslide, resulted in over 28 fatalities and left US$11 million (equivalent to $ 96.48 million in 2019) in damage. The two most extensive of these fault systems are an antithetic (east-dipping) fault zone running down the centre of the Sevier Desert Basin (Western Basin-Bounding fault of Planke & Smith 1991) and a west-dipping fault zone running down the eastern edge. Fault scarps – some nearly 20 feet high – caused damage to other roads and structures. Site 656-2 at Section 31 site is located near the center of the Hebgen fault. ... Paper Type: Matte. The schedule can be viewed here. Two hundred and fifty-five eruption intervals timed during the last 10 days of December showed an average interval of 67.4 minutes. A trench, excavated across the fault on the upper terrace, exposed the 1959 colluvial wedge and a penultimate wedge from a presumably earlier Holocene earthquake (Pierce and others, 2000 #7022; 2000 #7023). Hebgen Lake Information. Elevation: 6,539 feet (1,993 meters) USGS Topo Map Quad: Mount Hebgen Feature Type: Reservoir Which fault type is the result of compression? Normal fault A . The San Andreas Fault is an … The most popular paper choice, Matte’s eggshell texture is soft to the touch with a smooth finish that provides the perfect backdrop for your chosen designs. The earliest use of a name for the fault was probably in the numerous publications that resulted from studies of the 1959 Hebgen Lake earthquake (Myers and Hamilton, 1961 #636; Witkind and others, 1962 #633; Witkind, 1964 #247; Myers and Hamilton, 1964 #250; Witkind and others, 1964 #629; Witkind, 1969 #468). Coordinates: 44.7820913°N, -111.2334961°W Approx. The earthquake caused up to ~18-20 feet of offset on the surface (fault scarps) that can still be seen today on both the Hebgen Lake and Red Canyon faults and, to a lesser extent, the Madison fault. Hebgen Lake - Montana 1961. Upper Quaternary (Pinedale and Bull Lake) alluvium (~30%); Precambrian, Cambrian, Devonian, and Mississippian bedrock (~70%) based on mapping shown on plate 5 of USGS Professional Paper 435 (1964). Faults jpb, 2020. Red Canyon Fault Information. Hebgen fault (Class A) No. Within the Hebgen Lake basin, the 1959 earthquake is the latest slip event in the Hebgen Lake–Red Canyon fault system and southern Madison Range fault system. Strike-slip fault. The town of Ennis was evacuated as well due to concerns that Hebgen Lake would flood the area. Fault generally parallels the strike of the bedrock and has a close spatial relation to the surface trace of the Laramide-age Johnson thrust fault (Witkind, 1964 #247; Myers and Hamilton, 1964 #250). Which fault type would be most prominent at a transform plate boundary? * On this 5-day, a private group with 3-8 guests per group, is very safe, flexible, and enjoyable with an experienced and fun local tour guide
* A great experience a soothing soak in the world-famous naturally fed hot springs pools makes the perfect trip
* Enjoy a heated snow coach adventure into the magic of Yellowstone. Witkind and others (1964 #629) indicate that Cambrian strata are on both sides of the fault for much of its length suggesting that the total stratigraphic throw is small. The combination of the landslide, fault scarps, and damaged highways trapped many tourists in the canyon that night. On September 5, its steady boiling and surging became periodic, and the spring changed into a major geyser. The earthquake caused up to 18-20 feet of offset on the surface (fault scarps) that can still be seen today on both the Hebgen Lake and Red Canyon faults and, to a lesser extent, the Madison fault. The official magnitude of the earthquake is 7.3, and it was located just outside the western boundary of Yellowstone National Park, ~6.5 miles WNW of West Yellowstone, Montana. At least 590 springs had become turbid. The slide blocked the flow of the Madison … Everything along the fault scarps was damaged — trees were downed, trails and roads were offset, dwellings were ruined. Lines mark top of fault scarps associated with the collapse of Yellowstone Caldera during enormous eruption about 640,000 years ago. The landslide also dammed the Madison River, causing water to back up behind it creating EarthquakeLake. Model generated displacements correlate well with geodetic survey data collected before and after the 1954 (M = 7.1) Fairview Peak, Nevada, and the 1959 (M = 7.1) Hebgen Lake, Montana, earthquakes. Findings from original trenching (Hecker others, 2000 #7021) suggest the net tectonic vertical displacement of the alluvial-fan surface is 5-6 m; net displacement in the past two events is 2-3 m. A later study revealed a possible third event (Hecker and others, 2002 #7026) since the alluvial fan stabilized about 11-15 ka. 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